Grain quality 2017
GRAIN QUALITY 2017
As the harvest was delayed due to the weather conditions during the growing period, the quality was reduced, especially that of bread wheat and oats to be used for food. The falling numbers of wheat and rye dropped quickly at the beginning of the harvest. The quality of bread wheat was mostly reduced by the falling number being too low. The levels of the mycotoxin DON in almost one third of the oat samples and almost one fifth of the wheat samples exceeded the maximum levels set by the EU.
Levels were measured in oat and spring wheat samples which exceeded the maximum level set by the EU Commission for the mycotoxin DON (deoxynivalenol)in foodstuffs. The maximum level for DON in untreated wheat, rye and barley intended to be used for food is 1250 micrograms and for oats 1 750 micrograms per kg cereal ((EC) No 1881/2006, including amendments). The maximum level was exceeded in 31 per cent of the oat samples and in 18 per cent of the spring wheat samples. High levels of DON were more often found in cereals that were harvested late. However, in almost all of the samples with a high level of DON the wheat did not fulfil the other quality criteria for bread wheat. In oat samples with a high hectolitre weight (minimum of 58 kg), the maximum level for DON in oats to be used for food was exceeded in 7 per cent of the samples.
The recommended level of DON in grains to be used as feed is a maximum of 8000 micrograms per kg (Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC). There was a risk of exceeding the recommended maximum level for feed in about 10 per cent of the oat samples. For the quality monitoring, the level of the mycotoxin DON was specified only for oat and spring wheat samples as per Evira's risk assessment.
Figure 1. The proportion of spring wheat that fulfils the quality criteria for hectolitre weight, falling number, protein content and DON level did not exeed the maximum level set by the EU.
The target of the quality monitoring for hectolitre weight for oats to be used for food was 58 kg, which was attained in almost half of the oat samples. Of all the samples 90 per cent and of the organically grown samples 85 per cent achieved the target hectolitre weight of 52 kg for feed oats.
There was less high quality wheat than in previous years. Only 14 per cent of the wheat samples fulfilled the quality criteria of the monitoring, which were a minimum hectolitre weight of 78 kg, a minimum falling number of 180 and a minimum protein content of 12.5 per cent. The quality criteria for organic spring wheat were fulfilled in 9 per cent of the samples. As to spring wheat, the most common reason for bread grain of poor quality was that the falling number was too low. As to winter wheat, the quality was also reduced as the protein content was too low.
One third of the rye samples fulfilled the quality criteria of the quality monitoring, that is the falling number was a minimum of 120 and the hectolitre weight a minimum of 71 kg. The hectolitre weight was high enough in 93 per cent of the samples. The falling number was below 120 in 67 per cent of the samples. Large numbers of ergot sclerotia were found in rye. A maximum of 0.05 per cent of the weight of the sample of untreated grain can be ergot sclerotia ((EU) 2015/1940). As much as 40 per cent of the samples exceeded the maximum level. The number of ergot sclerotia in the samples for the quality monitoring was only exceeded in rye.
Over half of the barley samples and one third of the organic barley attained the target hectolitre weight of 64 kg. The quality criteria for malting barley were fulfilled in 74 per cent of the samples. The quality criteria for malting barley were a protein content between 9.0 and 11.5 per cent and a sufficient grainsize (85 % of the samples were over 2.5 mm). The germination percentage of malting barley was not taken into account.
Viljaseula 2017 -publication
This publication contains the data on the average grain quality for 2017. The publication functions as a good source of infrotmation when seeking statistical information on the quality factors of the grain. The publicationb analyses the quality of the grain harvest with the halp of figures which gives tha data in more detail.
Link to the publication (16.4.2018)
Sample survey of cereals - distribution of samples (pdf, 390 kt, 16.4.2018)
Grain quality monitoring charts 2017
Medium grain quality of all cereals
Medium grain quality by region
- Spring wheat (pdf 75,5 kb)
- Malting barley (pdf 77,0 kb)
- Barley (pdf 72,2 kb)
- Oats (pdf 73,1 kb)
- Rye (pdf 74,0 kb)
- Winter wheat (pdf 76,0 kb)